When dealing with the possibility of breaking down biomass, a substance known as lignin – one of the components in the woody material used to produce fossil fuel – has traditionally been seen as a challenge, as it is difficult to break down and convert into useful fuel. As such, it often requires high levels of energy or the use of chemicals.
To study this further, a team of scientists from the University of Manchester and East China University of Science and Technology stewed a catalyst – made up of the metal complex niobium phosphate, with small particles of platinum scattered across the surface – with raw wood sawdust for 20 hours at 190° Celsius (374° Fahrenheit) and a pressure of 50 atmospheres.
The catalyst was able to directly break down and convert into lignin. The result is encouraging for scientists, who believe it could be a first step in the process of converting biomass into fuel.
“The conversion of biomass into fuels typically requires separations and pre-treatments to the raw biomass, thus suffering high energy penalties,” study author Dr. Sihai Yang said in a statement.
However, he noted that “this catalyst showed exceptionally high activity in splitting the carbon-oxygen bonds, the most challenging step in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass.”
“This new catalytic process can therefore directly convert raw biomass to liquid fuels without separations or chemical pre-treatments, leading to significant potential energy savings,” Yang said.
The production of biomass offers an energy alternative that is almost carbon neutral, since the carbon dioxide used is recycled in plant photosynthesis.
The study was published in the journal Nature Communications on Thursday.
Environmentalists argue that fossil fuels are extremely damaging to the environment, and have urged for the vast majority of such resources to be kept underground in order to prevent climate change.
The number of views on this German video about Erdogan doubled overnight: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R2e2yHjc_mc
.@RussiaInsider passing unfettered messages to the elites:https://s3.amazonaws.com/khudes/Twitter3.31.16.pdf
Gold is one of the most fascinating of all rare metals. Throughout all history it has been given a special, at times sacred or spiritual value, since six thousand years ago when the Egyptian Pharoahs’ tombs were filled with it to accompany the dead on their journey. In times of world financial crisis as in the 1930’s, gold is preferred by central banks and ordinary citizens as a store of value when paper money loses value. We are approaching another of those times when the accumulated paper debt of the dollar system is debasing the worth of paper dollars. What’s highly significant in this light is to see which central banks are buying all the gold they can get.
Another foiled attempt to steal the world’s assets. https://s3.amazonaws.com/khudes/Twitter18.104.22.168.pdf
Broken links = over the target
The World Bank 1818 H Street N.W. (202) 473-1000
INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT Washington, D.C. 20433 Cable Address: INTBAFRAD
INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION U.S.A. Cable Address: INDEVAS
From: Karen Hudes <email@example.com> Sent: Wednesday, March 30, 2016 4:24 PM To: the Attached Distribution List Subject: Re: Another Misguided Attempt to Steal the Assets in the Global Debt Facility, TVM-LSM-666 https://s3.amazonaws.com/khudes/Twitter22.214.171.124.pdf
The Dragons have nothing to do with anything after the 50 years of sequestration. The Bilateral Minesfield Breakthrough Successor Agreement, agreed to by China when Jose Rizal placed the assets into trust https://s3.amazonaws.com/khudes/Twitter126.96.36.199.pdf , governs. https://s3.amazonaws.com/khudes/BILATERAL.pdf
I regard this as another hostile attempt to steal the world’s assets. This video on China and India, which was just posted on the internet, refers: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VhgTYrQYmUM https://s3.amazonaws.com/khudes/dctvteleprompt3.22.pdf
The Board of Governors of the World Bank and IMF administer the Global Debt Facility. The Network of Global Corporate Control identified by Vitali, Glattfelder, and Battiston of ETH Zurich http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/1107/1107.5728v2.pdf is now in receivership in the Global Debt Facility.
The United States is in interregnum, and its illegal military rule exposed as a corrupt illegitimate regime, and stripped from power and authority, pending the return to constitutionality via Article V of the Constitution of 1789. Jim Kim and Christine Lagarde were fired for similar illegal attempts to usurp authority from the Board of Governors in contravention of the Articles of the Bretton Woods institutions.
During this interregnum, I convey the voice and vote of the United States on the Board of Governors and the Boards of Executive Directors of the World Bank and IMF. https://s3.amazonaws.com/khudes/Twitter188.8.131.52.pdf As I explained on March 1, 2016, the Board of Governors of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund have declared that the United States is in interregnum, due to the failure of the US Congress to convene the Convention required under Article V of the Constitution of 1789. Justice Anton Scalia’s unexplained sudden death only reinforces this fact. https://s3.amazonaws.com/khudes/Twitter184.108.40.206.pdf
As I said the day before yesterday, the US Japan Joint Committee under the Status of Forces Agreement will not allow the unconstitutional Federal Reserve Note to crash and surrender the US unilaterally. https://s3.amazonaws.com/khudes/Twitter220.127.116.11.pdf The enlisted men and women in the US military have been learning about the corruption in the financial system and state capture of the US government for some time; they remain loyal to the people in the United States. Foreword: https://s3.amazonaws.com/khudes/A+Grandfather%27s+Encouragement.pdf
Here is the rest of the book:
https://s3.amazonaws.com/khudes/1.Perspective+Summary.pdf https://s3.amazonaws.com/khudes/2.Perspective.pdf https://s3.amazonaws.com/khudes/3.Perspective+Afterword.pdf https://s3.amazonaws.com/khudes/4.Rebuilding+America%27s+Inner+Compass.pdf https://s3.amazonaws.com/khudes/5.Rebuilding+Global+Banking+System.pdf
I explained yesterday to Beverly Perry, Jason Yuckenberg, and Tommie Jones in Mayor Muriel Bowser’s office that the United States’ secret military rule has ended, and that Mayor Muriel Bowser was relieved of her secret command under the Lieber Code.
Sincerely, Karen Hudes Acting General Counsel, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Overseer Mandate Trustee, Global Debt Facility, TVM-LSM-666
Dorsett Price interview for the I Don’t Know TV Show, part 4:
Disclosing the extent of the lawyers’ corruption: